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Миллионы буддистов по всему свету стремятся достигнуть нирваны и просветления. У каждого свой путь до этой цели. Есть буддисты и в России. Так, буддизм является основной религией в республике Калмыкия. Именно о столице Калмыкии – Элисте – уникальном и сказочном городе, не похожем ни на один другой российский город, я и хотел сегодня рассказать.
Местные жители называют Элисту степной жемчужиной, которая сверкает посреди безжизненных и сухих песков и степей. Элиста – достаточно молодой и небольшой (около 100 тысяч жителей) город, но это совершенно не уменьшает её красоту и привлекательность для туристов. А привлекает Элиста своим неповторимым национальным колоритом: многочисленные буддийские храмы и сооружения, шахматный город, памятники. Об этих замечательных местах можно рассказывать бесконечно долго, поэтому я выберу самые интересные, на мой взгляд, достопримечательности.
На первом месте, разумеется, бесподобный храм «Золотая обитель Будды Шакьямуни» («Бурхн Багшин Алтн Сюме»), одна из главных достопримечательностей Элисты. Он представляет собой величественное здание, где совершаются молебны, ритуалы и праздничные богослужения. Хурул (так называется буддийский храм) был построен в Элисте в очень короткие сроки – за девять месяцев 2005 года и является крупнейшим в Европе. По периметру здание «Золотой обители Будды Шакьямуни» обнесено оградой с чередующимися через каждые пять метров небольшими белоснежными статуями. Южные ворота являются главными, но следует сказать, что в ограде храма входы существуют с каждой из сторон света. В главном зале – дугана – находится величественная статуя Будды Шакьямуни высота в девять метров. Здесь также находится музей истории буддизма с уникальными экспонатами.
Далее перенесемся на юго-восток города Элиста, здесь находится шахматный городок Сити-Чесс.
Он был построен для проведения 33-й Всемирной шахматной олимпиады в Элисте. Центральный объект – Дворец шахмат, в котором и проходила Всемирная шахматная олимпиада и 69-й конгресс ФИДЕ. Это сооружение в пять этажей, 6 182 кв. м (спортивные залы, кафе, конференц-зал, офисы). В Сити-Чесс имеются гостиница, площадь Каиссы – богини-покровительницы шахмат, аквапарк и другие объекты социально-культурного назначения. На центральной аллее установлена Золотая корона, названная скульптором В. Васькиным «Йорял» («Благопожелание»). Сити-Чесс украшают оригинальные композиции, выполненные участниками международного симпозиума скульпторов «Планета Каисса» в 1998 году. В залах Дворца работают различные выставки. Здесь же располагается интересная экспозиция шахматного музея. На территории Сити-Чесс имеется небольшой православный храм, подарок Е.Н. Батуриной. Сегодня Сити-Чесс – место проведения республиканских, общероссийских и международных соревнований по шахматам, деловых симпозиумов, деловых и культурных встреч.
Недалеко от Сити-Чесс находится Ступа просветления, дарующая мир, покой, согласие, благополучие и благоденствие, отвечает на молитвы и выполняет просьбы, способствует скорейшему просветлению всех, кто к ней обращается. К Ступе прилегает домик со статуей защитника всех живых существ - двурукого Махакалы Бернагчена. Всю территорию опоясывают восемь канатов с тысячью разноцветных флагов, на каждом написаны молитвы – подношения духам ветра и воздуха, которые должны разносить мантры по всему свету из Элисты.
А мы вернемся в центр города Элиста и осмотрим самые интересные достопримечательности, находящиеся там. Начнем с площади Ленина. Здесь находится ротонда «Пагода семи дней». Кстати, пагода называется «Семь дней», потому, что имеет 7 ярусов, каждый из которых соответствуют определенному дню недели. Каждый человек может покрутить установленный под ротондой молитвенный барабан (кюрдэ), в котором заложены 30 миллионов религиозных мантр. Барабан был изготовлен в Индии и затем привезен в Элисту.
Рядом с пагодой находится фонтан «Три лотоса». Особую красоту фонтанам придают светодиодные фонтанные шары, похожие на свернувшихся в клубок ежиков, которые подсвечивают воду и в результате она сказочно переливается разными цветами. В будущем фонтан «Три лотоса» станет и первым в республике и Элисте светомузыкальным фонтаном. Золотистым отблеском крыши пагоды «Семь дней» и лепестков лотоса на главной площади города можно любоваться часами. Они завораживают божественным сиянием и не только радуют взор, но и успокаивают душу.
Непременно стоит посетить в Элисте «Алтн Босх» - Золотые Ворота. Они выполнены в традициях буддийской архитектуры. Двадцать восемь картин иллюстрируют страницы истории и современной жизни Калмыкии. Арка – это главный вход в ставку, символ священного порога, символ добра и благополучия, олицетворяющий начало, силу и власть. Проходящий черед Золотые ворота, входящий в Элисту очищается духовно, вступает на высокий путь, путь добродетели – белую дорогу. Здесь под звук колокольчиков загадываются желания.
Можно ещё долго рассказывать об Элисте: о фонтане «Мальчик и дракон», о Триумфальной арке, о беседке-ротонде с Буддой Шакьямуни, о многочисленных памятниках (Остапу Бендеру, «Исход и Возвращение», «Эхо», «Йорял», «Три маленьких богатыря» и другие). А некоторые вещи невозможно описать – это, разумеется, известная народная калмыцкая кухня. Если побываете в Элисте, обязательно попробуйте джумбу (молочный чай), борцги, берги и другие национальные кушанья.
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