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"Гнёздовские курганы" археологический комплекс
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Археологический комплекс в Гнездове состоит из трех тысяч древнерусских курганов, двух городищ (укрепленных поселений) и нескольких селищ. Он имеет не только общероссийское, но и мировое культурно-историческое значение.

Остатки строений, оружие, украшения, предметы быта, найденные на месте раскопок Гнездовского комплекса – все это служит вещественными доказательствами летописным сведениям о самом древнем периоде истории нашего государства. Небольшое поселение, возникшее на рубеже IX–X веков, довольно быстро стало важным торгово-ремесленным и военно-административным центром, располагавшемся на пути «из варяг в греки» – своеобразном стержне формировавшегося Древнерусского государства.

Изучение древних курганов и городищ началось еще в позапрошлом веке. При строительстве железной дороги в 1867 году в Гнездово был найден клад, состоящий из серебряных украшений (сейчас он хранится в Государственном Эрмитаже). С этого времени внимание исследователей к Гнездово стало постоянным. До революции раскопки здесь велись представителями Московского археологического общества, Императорской археологической комиссии и Смоленской архивной комиссии. В предвоенные годы изучением «гнездовских древностей» занимались археологи А.Н. Лявданский и Н.П. Милонов.

С 1949 года раскопки Гнездовского комплекса ведет археологическая экспедиция Московского государственного университета. В течение долгого времени работами руководил наш земляк, археолог с мировым именем Д.А. Авдусин. С 1995 года археологическая экспедиция МГУ ведется совместно с Государственным историческим музеем.

Благодаря исследованиям последних лет обнаружены новые районы поселений в пойме Днепра, остатки гавани и пристани, большое количество вещественных материалов, подтверждающих важность Гнездова как торгового пункта на пути «из варяг в греки». Основные вещественные материалы, полученные от раскопок, хранятся в Государственном историческом музее в Москве, в археологическом музее при историческом факультете МГУ, в Государственном Эрмитаже в Санкт-Петербурге, в Смоленском музее-заповеднике.
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